Ferdinand was born in Alcalá de Henares, Spain, the second son of Queen Joanna I of Castile from the House of Trastámara (herself the daughter of the Catholic Monarchs Isabel I of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon) and Habsburg Archduke Philip the Handsome, who was heir to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Empe… Ferdinand was also a patron of the arts. Notable ancestors includeCharlemagne (747-814), Alfred the Great (849-899), Henry II of … In 1556 the Diet returned John II Sigismund to the eastern Hungarian throne, where he remained until 1570. This article about a political figure is a stub. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor was born 10 March 1503 in Alcalá de Henares, Spain to Philip I of Castile (1478-1506) and Joanna of Castile (1479-1555) and died 25 July 1564 inVienna, Austria of unspecified causes. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. In 1538, by the Peace of Nagyvárad (German: Grosswardein), Ferdinand became Zápolya’s successor, but he was unable to enforce the agreement in his lifetime. Before his accession, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of his elder brother, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. He was the last emperor to have real power over the Holy Roman Empire. On 24 October 1526 the Bohemian Diet, acting under the influence of chancellor Adam of Hradce, elected Ferdinand King of Bohemia under conditions of confirming traditional privileges of the estates and also moving the Habsburg court to Prague. The same year, he also defeated a Protestant revolt in Bohemia, where the estates and a large part of the nobility had denied him support in the German campaign. [15] Out of all his countries, the depleted Kingdom of Hungary was, at that time, Ferdinand's largest source of revenue. Aggrieved, however, at Charles’s refusal to reinstate him in recaptured Württemberg and at the emperor’s attempts to ensure the succession of his son Philip (the future Philip II of Spain) to the imperial crown, Ferdinand began to take a more independent stand. While not a supremely gifted commander, he was interested in military matters and participated in several campaigns during his reign. Due to lengthy debate and bureaucratic procedure, the Imperial Diet did not accept the Imperial succession until 3 May 1558. According to the terms set at the First Congress of Vienna in 1515, Ferdinand married Anne Jagiellonica, daughter of King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary on 22 July 1515. He was the leading champion of the Roman Catholic Counter-Reformation and of absolutist rule during the Thirty Years’ War. He also gathered some humanists, many of whom had a major influence on his son Maximilian. He married Maria Anna of Bavaria (1574-1616) 23 April 1600 . Prince-Infante in Spain, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Margrave of Moravia, Duke of Luxemburg, the Upper and Lower Silesia, Württemberg and … But in 1540, just before his death, Zápolya had a son, John II Sigismund, who was promptly elected King by the Diet. After suppressing the revolt, he retaliated by limiting the privileges of Bohemian cities and inserting a new bureaucracy of royal officials to control urban authorities. Ferdinand became suo jure monarch in Austria and succeeded Charles as Holy Roman Emperor. Ferdinand sent the Pope a long accusation of treason against Martinuzzi in 87 articles, supported by 116 witnesses. You can help Wikiquote by expanding it. Ferdinand was unable to keep the Ottomans out of Hungary. Ferdinand III (July 13, 1608 – April 2, 1657) was Holy Roman Emperor from February 15, 1637 until his death, as well as King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria. An ardent Catholic and rigidly autocratic prince, Philip pursued an aggressive political, economic and religious policy toward the Dutch, resulting in a Dutch rebellion shortly after he became king. [17] Ferdinand also sought to strengthen the position of the Catholic church in the Bohemian lands, and favoured the installation of the Jesuits there. He was born, raised, and educated in Spain, and did not learn German when he was young. Abraham Godijn and Isaac Godijn - Fresco in the Hall of Honor in the Troja Palace - Abdication of Charles V in favor of Ferndinand I.jpeg 1,103 × 289; 405 KB. Given the settlement of 1521 and the election of 1531, Ferdinand became Holy Roman Emperor and suo jure Archduke of Austria. Zápolya fled the country and applied to Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent for support, making Hungary an Ottoman vassal state. Ferdinand was able to defend his realm and make it somewhat more cohesive, but he could not conquer the major part of Hungary. Holy Roman Emperor from 15 February 1637 until his death, as well as King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria. With his accession, the Habsburg domains became separated into more easily governable Austrian and Spanish parts, with Spain going to Philip and Germany to Ferdinand. [12], In 1538, in the Treaty of Nagyvárad, Ferdinand induced the childless Zápolya to name him as his successor. The imperial heir since 1531, he was not finally placated until Charles agreed in 1553 to exclude Philip from the German succession, which then passed to Ferdinand’s son, the future Maximilian II. [3] Ferdinand's motto was Fiat iustitia, et pereat mundus: "Let justice be done, though the world perish".[4]. [28] His handling of the Protestant Reformation proved more flexible and more effective than that of his brother and he played a key part in the settlement of 1555, which started an era of peace in Germany. Prince-Infante in Spain, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Margrave of Moravia, Duke of Luxemburg, the Upper and Lower Silesia, Württemberg and Teck, Prince of Swabia, Princely Count of Habsburg, Tyrol, Ferrette, Kyburg, Gorizia, Landgrave of Alsace, Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, Enns, Burgau, the Upper and Lower Lusatia, Lord of the Wendish March, Pordenone and Salins, etc. [26], Charles' abdication had far-reaching consequences in imperial diplomatic relations with France and the Netherlands, particularly in his allotment of the Spanish kingdom to Philip. Ferdinand II, Holy Roman emperor (1619–37), archduke of Austria, king of Bohemia (1617–19, 1620–27), and king of Hungary (1618–25). In 1554, Ferdinand sent Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq to Constantinople to discuss a border treaty with Suleiman, but he could achieve nothing. The Declaratio Ferdinandei was not debated in plenary session at all; using his authority to "act and settle,"[19] Ferdinand had added it at the last minute, responding to lobbying by princely families and knights. Philip was culturally Spanish: he was born in Valladolid and raised in the Spanish court, his native tongue was Spanish, and he preferred to live in Spain. He also converted the elected crowns of Bohemia and Hungary into hereditary possessions of the house of Habsburg. For more than three decades he was Charles’s deputy in German affairs, representing him at imperial diets and serving as president of the Reichsregiment (imperial governmental council). …Charles V left his brother Ferdinand in charge of imperial affairs and departed from Germany after the Worms diet to deal with the many problems besetting his far-flung interests. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Armour of Emperor Ferdinand I, by Kunz Lochner, 1549; in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. Also, he often served as Charles' representative in Germany and developed encouraging relationships with German princes. Ferdinand was a supporter of the Counter-Reformation and helped lead the Catholic response against what he saw as the heretical tide of Protestantism. Therefore, after the death of his brother-in-law Louis II, King of Bohemia and of Hungary, at the battle of Mohács on 29 August 1526, Fer… The Spanish empire, which included Spain, the Netherlands, Naples, Milan and Spain's possessions in the Americas, went to his son, Philip. Later generations are included although Austrian titles of nobility were abolished in 1919. [1][2] Before his accession, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of hi German, Czech, Slovenian, Slovak, Serbian, Croatian: Ferdinand I.; Hungarian: I. Ferdinánd; Spanish: Fernando I; Turkish: 1. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Ferdinand II, Archduke of Further Austria, Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs, King of Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, "Habsburg, Philipp I. der Schöne von Oesterreich", Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich, "Charles, called The Bold, duke of Burgundy", "Ferdinand V. of Castile and Leon and II. Ferdinand I (Spanish: Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1556, King of Bohemia, Hungary, and Croatia from 1526, and Archduke of Austria from 1521 until his death in 1564. Opposition from the nobles in those realms forced him to concede the independence of these institutions from supervision by the Austrian government in Vienna in 1559. Suleiman had allocated Transylvania and eastern Royal Hungary to John II Sigismund, which became the "Eastern Hungarian Kingdom", reigned over by his mother, Isabella Jagiełło, with Martinuzzi as the real power. 174 relations. But Isabella's hostile intrigues and threats from the Ottomans led Martinuzzi to switch round. Suleiman marched into Hungary (see Siege of Buda (1541)) and not only drove Ferdinand out of central Hungary, he forced Ferdinand to agree to pay tribute for his lands in western Hungary.[13]. Ferdinand organized an Imperial election in 1562 in order to secure the succession of his son Maximilian II. Ferdinand invaded Hungary, but the regent, Frater George Martinuzzi, Bishop of Várad, called on the Ottomans for protection. Before his accession, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of his elder brother, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Ferdinand I, Emperor of Germany, 1503-1564. Venetian ambassadors to Ferdinand recall in their Relazioni the Emperor's pragmatism and his ability to speak multiple languages. For example, in 1551 he invited the Jesuits to Vienna and in 1556 to Prague. Therefore, after the death of his brother-in-law Louis II, King of Bohemia and of Hungary, at the battle of Mohács on 29 August 1526, Ferdinand immediately applied to the parliaments of Hungary and Bohemia to participate as a candidate in the king elections. Each was elected by a rival faction, and Hungary remained divided among Ferdinand, Zápolya, and the Ottoman Empire. Holborn, pp. Despite these enormous territorial and demographic losses, the smaller, heavily war-torn Royal Hungary had remained economically more important than Austria or Kingdom of Bohemia even at the end of the 16th century. 16th century Holy Roman Emperor, Archduke of Austria and Infante of Spain. He centralized his administration, revoked many urban privileges and confiscated properties. The Pope exonerated Ferdinand and lifted the excommunications in 1555.[14]. This allowed him to play a critical role in the settlement of the religious issue in the Empire. The Pope refused to recognize Ferdinand as Emperor until 1559, when peace was reached between France and the Habsburgs. [17] At first, Ferdinand accepted this situation and he gave considerable freedom to the Bohemian estates. 249–250; Wernham, pp. Ferdinand and his son Maximilian participated in the victorious campaign of Charles V against the German Protestants in 1547. De Busbecq returned to Constantinople in 1556, and succeeded on his second try. According to the terms set at the First Congress of Vienna in 1515, Ferdinand married Anne Jagiellonica, daughter of King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary on 22 July 1515. Ferdinand I has been the main motif for many collector coins and medals. Media in category "Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor" The following 50 files are in this category, out of 50 total. The Ottoman Empire almost continually threatened Europe during Ferdinand’s reign. [10] In return for the throne, Archduke Ferdinand promised to respect the historic rights, freedoms, laws and customs of the Croats when they united with the Hungarian kingdom and to defend Croatia from Ottoman invasion. Ferdinand died in Vienna in 1564 and is buried in St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague. After the death of Louis II, Ferdinand ruled as King of Bohemia and Hungary (1526–1564). This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Ferdinand-I-Holy-Roman-emperor, The Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online - Biography of Ferdinand I. Philip's militant response meant the occupation of much of the upper provinces by troops of, or hired by, Habsburg Spain and the constant ebb and flow of Spanish men and provisions on the so-called Spanish road from northern Italy, through the Burgundian lands, to and from Flanders.[27]. His flexible approach to Imperial problems, mainly religious, finally brought more result than the more confrontational attitude of his brother. Finally, in 1561 Ferdinand revived the Archdiocese of Prague, which had been previously liquidated due to the success of the Protestants. [19] At the conference, which opened on 5 February, Ferdinand cajoled, persuaded and threatened the various representatives into agreement on three important principles promulgated on 25 September: After 1555, the Peace of Augsburg became the legitimating legal document governing the co-existence of the Lutheran and Catholic faiths in the German lands of the Holy Roman Empire, and it served to ameliorate many of the tensions between followers of the "Old Faith" (Catholicism) and the followers of Luther, but it had two fundamental flaws. Ferdinand I (Spanish: Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1556, king of Bohemia and Royal Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death in 1564. In foreign affairs Ferdinand was no less successful. [1][2] Before his accession, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of his elder brother, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. On 26 May 1521 in Linz, Austria, Ferdinand married Anna of Bohemia and Hungary (1503–1547), daughter of Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary and his wife Anne de Foix. Ferdinand I (Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death. The most recent one is the Austrian silver 20-euro Renaissance coin issued on 12 June 2002. The Turks failed to take Vienna in 1529 but threatened Austria again in 1532 and 1541. In Germany, while most Protestant princes had hitherto favored negotiation with the Emperor and while many had supported him in his wars, they became increasingly confrontational during this decade. Ferdinand I (Spanish: Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1556, King of Bohemia, Hungary, and Croatia from 1526, and Archduke of Austria from 1521 until his death in 1564. As long as he hoped for a favorable response from his humiliating overtures to Suleiman, Ferdinand was not inclined to grant the peace which the Protestants demanded at the Diet of Regensburg which met in April 1532. Ferdinand I (Spanish: Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death. In spite of the huge Austrian sacrifices, he was not able to collect enough money to pay for the expenses of the defence costs of Austrian lands. He took possession of Bohemia without difficulty but faced a rival claimant, János Zápolya, in Hungary. Thus, in 1536 the Hungarian Diet decided that a new place for coronation of the king as well as a meeting place for the Diet itself would be set in Pressburg. Hostile toward Protestantism, he bore some responsibility for the Lutheran secession from the Diet of Speyer (1529), and, after he had lost Württemberg to the Lutheran landgrave Philip the Magnanimous of Hesse (1534), he helped the emperor defeat the Protestant Schmalkaldic League in 1546–47. Ferdinand shared his customs, culture, name, and even his birthday with his maternal grandfather Ferdinand II of Aragon. [7] They had fifteen children, all but two of whom reached adulthood: After ascending the Imperial Throne Ferdinand's full titulature, rarely used, went as follows: Though lacking resources, he managed to defend his land against the Ottomans with limited support from his brother, and even secured a part of Hungary that would later provide the basis for the conquest of the whole kingdom by the Habsburgs. As the ruler of Austria, Bohemia and Royal Hungary, Ferdinand adopted a policy of centralisation and, in common with other monarchs of the time, the construction of an absolute monarchy. Ferdinand was familiar with, and to, the other princes of the Holy Roman Empire. [24] This course of events had been guaranteed already on 5 January 1531 when Ferdinand had been elected the King of the Romans and so the legitimate successor of the reigning Emperor. Ferdinand also had the support of his brother, the Emperor Charles V. On 10 November 1526, John Zápolya was proclaimed king by a Diet at Székesfehérvár, elected in the parliament by the untitled lesser nobility (gentry). Ferdinand I (Spanish: Fernando I ) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1556, king of Bohemia and Royal Hungary from 1526, … Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. During the Ottoman wars the territory of the former Kingdom of Hungary shrunk by around 70%. In 1556, amid great pomp, and leaning on the shoulder of one of his favourites (the 24-year-old William, Count of Nassau and Orange),[23] Charles gave away his lands and his offices. In the Netherlands, Philip's ascension in Spain raised particular problems; for the sake of harmony, order, and prosperity Charles had not blocked the Reformation, and had tolerated a high level of local autonomy. Ferdinand I (also known as Fernando I in Spanish) served as the Holy Roman Emperor from 1556 (coronation in 1558), the king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and the king of Croatia from 1527, until his death in 1564. The Croatian nobles unanimously accepted the Pozsony election of Ferdinand I, receiving him as their king in the 1527 election in Cetin, and confirming the succession to him and his heirs. Unlike his brother, he opposed Albrecht of Brandenburg-Kulmbach and participated in his defeat. In 1526, on the death of his brother-in-law, King Louis II of Bohemia and Hungary, Ferdinand claimed both domains. Britannica now has a site just for parents! A further Ottoman invasion was repelled in 1532 (see Siege of Güns). Charles abdicated as Emperor in August 1556 in favor of his brother Ferdinand. The Austrian branch of Habsburg monarchs needed the economic power of Hungary for the Ottoman wars. Ferdinand took over Charles’s imperial functions in 1555 and was elected emperor in 1558 after his brother’s abdication. The most perilous of these was the war with France, which implicated the emperor in a constantly shifting balance of alliances…. Ferdinand I (Spanish: Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1556, king of Bohemia and Royal Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death in 1564. Ferdinand proposed that the Hungarian and Bohemian diets should convene and hold debates together with the Austrian estates, but all parties refused such an innovation. [22] Some historians maintain Ferdinand had also been touched by the reformed philosophies, and was probably the closest the Holy Roman Empire ever came to a Protestant emperor; he remained nominally a Catholic throughout his life, although reportedly he refused last rites on his deathbed. Ferdinand I, (born March 10, 1503, Alcalá de Henares, Spain—died July 25, 1564, Vienna, Habsburg domain [now in Austria]), Holy Roman emperor (1558–64) and king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, who, with his Peace of Augsburg (1555), concluded the era of religious strife in Germany following the rise of Lutheranism by recognizing the right of territorial princes to determine the religion of their subjects. [9] Accordingly, Ferdinand was crowned as King of Hungary in the Székesfehérvár Basilica on 3 November, 1527. He married Anna of Bohemia and Hungary (1503-1547) 27 May 1521 JL in Linz, Austria. In the summer of 1518 Ferdinand was sent to Flanders following his brother Charles's arrival in Spain as newly appointed King Charles I the previous autumn. After decades of religious and political unrest in the German states, Charles V ordered a general Diet in Augsburg at which the various states would discuss the religious problem and its solution. Wikipedia [21], While these specific failings came back to haunt the Empire in subsequent decades, perhaps the greatest weakness of the Peace of Augsburg was its failure to take into account the growing diversity of religious expression emerging in the so-called evangelical and reformed traditions. FERDINAND I (HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE) (1503 – 1564)FERDINAND I (HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE) (1503 – 1564), king of Bohemia, Hungary, and Croatia, 1526; king of the Romans 1531; Holy Roman emperor, 1558.The young Archduke Ferdinand was born on 10 March 1503 in Alcal á de Henares, Spain, and grew up under the supervision of his grandfather, King Ferdinand of Arag ó n and Castile. Ferdinand I (Spanish: Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1556, King of Bohemia, Hungary, and Croatia from 1527, and Archduke of Austria from 1521 until his death in 1564. The younger brother of the Holy Roman emperor Charles V, Ferdinand was granted Austria, with the regency of both the Habsburg German lands and Württemberg. 123–248). Ferdinand I (Spanish: Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1556, King of Bohemia, Hungary, and Croatia from 1527, and Archduke of Austria from 1521 until his death in 1564. This allowed him to increase his power in this realm. On the Protestant issue, Ferdinand, unlike Charles, eventually became convinced of the need for a compromise. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. His statesmanship, overall, was cautious and effective, well-suited to a medium-sized collection of territories facing dangerous threats. In 1527, soon after ascending the throne, he published a constitution for his hereditary domains (Hofstaatsordnung) and established Austrian-style institutions in Pressburg for Hungary, in Prague for Bohemia, and in Breslau for Silesia. According to the Augsburg agreement, their religious beliefs remained heretical.[22]. The western rump of Hungary over which Ferdinand retained dominion became known as Royal Hungary. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman emperor (1558–64) and king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, who, with his Peace of Augsburg (1555), concluded the era of religious strife in Germany following the rise of Lutheranism by recognizing the right of territorial princes to determine the religion of their [7] Both Hungary and Bohemia were elective monarchies,[8] where the parliaments had the sovereign right to decide about the person of the king. Together with the formation of the Schmalkaldic League in 1531, this struggle with the Ottomans caused Ferdinand to grant the Nuremberg Religious Peace. By adopting the German language and culture late in his life, he also grew close to the German territorial princes. The second son of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, by his first wife, Maria Anna of Spain, Leopold became heir apparent in 1654 by the death of his elder brother Ferdinand IV. Franz von Innerösterreich (1540-1590) and Maria Anna von Bayern (1551-1608) and died 15 February 1637 inVienna, Austria of unspecified causes. The success was only partial, as the Diet refused to recognise Ferdinand as hereditary lord of the Kingdom. After repeated and mostly futile pleas for assistance from the German princes, Ferdinand finally reestablished an uneasy peace in 1562, when he agreed to pay tribute to the Ottoman sultan for Austria’s share of Hungary. etc. [1] [2] Before his accession, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of his elder brother, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. The new emperor centralized his administration and, though only with limited success, sought to revive Roman Catholicism in his lands. He embellished Vienna and Prague, and invited Italian architects to his realm. Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor was born 9 July 1578 in Graz, Austria to Karl II. Consequently, its wording did not cover all, or even most, potential legal scenarios. In 1559 and again from 1564–1568 there were negotiations for a marriage between Charles-Franz and Queen Elizabeth I … Ferdinand was elected Holy Roman Emperor on 28 August 1619 (Frankfurt), two days earlier the Protestant Bohemian Estates had deposed Ferdinand (as king of Bohemia). In 1549, he agreed to support Ferdinand's claim, and Imperial armies marched into Transylvania. A portrait of Ferdinand I is shown on the reverse of the coin, while on the obverse a view of the Swiss Gate of the Hofburg Palace can be seen. Ferdinand's general Castaldo suspected Martinuzzi of treason and with Ferdinand's approval had him killed. [18] This defeat, along with his German ways, made Ferdinand more popular than the Emperor among Protestant princes. Media in category "Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor in art" The following 26 files are in this category, out of 26 total. During his Emperorship, the Council of Trent came to an end. He was Archduke of Austria from 1521 to 1564. Milan Kruhek: Cetin, grad izbornog sabora Kraljevine Hrvatske 1527, Karlovačka Županija, 1997, Karslovac. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, the nocturnal North-western quadrant, consisting of the 4th, 5th and 6th houses, prevails in your chart: this sector favours creativity, conception and some sort of specialization or training, with helpfulness and relations as strong components. In France, the kings and their ministers grew increasingly uneasy about Habsburg encirclement and sought allies against Habsburg hegemony from among the border German territories, and even from some of the Protestant kings. With the death of his grandfather Maximilian I and the accession of his now 19-year-old brother, Charles V, to title of Holy Roman Emperor in 1519, Ferdinand was entrusted with the government of the Austrian hereditary lands, roughly modern-day Austria and Slovenia. Since Martinuzzi was by this time an archbishop and Cardinal, this was a shocking act, and Pope Julius III excommunicated Castaldo and Ferdinand. He was first the Archduke of Austria from 1521-1564. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (Holy Roman Emperor, 1503-1564, ruled from 1558) Computed Name Heading [25] Other historians maintain he was as Catholic as his brother, but tended to see religion as outside the political sphere. Ferdinand I (10 March 1503, Alcalá de Henares, Spain – 25 July 1564, Vienna, Habsburg domain [now in Austria]) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death. Ferdinand defeated Zápolya at the Battle of Tarcal in September 1527 and again in the Battle of Szina in March 1528. Fer­di­… But as the army of Suleiman drew nearer he yielded and on 23 July 1532 the peace was concluded at Nuremberg where the final deliberations took place. The key events during his reign were the contest with the Ottoman Empire, which in the 1520s began a great advance into Central Europe, and the Protestant Reformation, which resulted in several wars of religion. He married Eleonore Gonzaga (1598-1655) 1622 . Therefore, after the death of his brother-in-law Louis II, King of Bohemia and of Hungary, at the battle of Mohács on 29 August 1526, Fer… News of his deposition arrived in Frankfurt on the 28th but Ferdinand didn't leave town until he'd been crowned. Ferdinand was born in Graz,… Charles himself did not attend, and delegated authority to his brother, Ferdinand, to "act and settle" disputes of territory, religion and local power. In the Treaty of Weissenburg (1551), Isabella agreed on behalf of John II Sigismund to abdicate as King of Hungary and to hand over the royal crown and regalia. Some of them even went to war against the Empire, and many Bohemian (German or Czech) Protestants or Utraquists sympathized with them.[17]. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) reigned as archiduke of Austria from 1521, king of Hungary, Bohemia and Croatia from 1526 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1556 till his death. 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Culture, name, and educated in Spain, he built a tax system that, though imperfect, continue... Lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to inbox! Were supported by different factions of the Kingdom several campaigns during his Emperorship, the princes... Gathered some humanists, many of whom had a major influence on his son Maximilian II 1550s... 1521 and the Habsburgs lands in the Empire since 1531 more cohesive, but he could conquer. Helped lead the Catholic response against what he saw as the heretical of! The Counter-Reformation and of absolutist rule during the Ottoman invasion of Hungary the! Austria and Infante of Spain situation and he gave considerable freedom to the German language and late! Figure is a stub managed to strengthen his own possessions, he to. Number of Utraquists favoured an alliance with the formation of the Kingdom also elected King of Bohemia Hungary! 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Ferdinand 's daughter Charles, eventually became convinced of the former Kingdom of,...

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